The Truth About the Summer Cold Virus

Q. Are there different types of viruses in warm weather? 
For the most part, viruses are the same year-round. But there is one kind that's more common in the summer: the enterovirus, also called the stomach flu. This virus, which lasts a week or two, causes digestive issues and respiratory symptoms.

Because enteroviruses are spread the same way as colds -- through direct contact with another person or an infected surface -- remind your kids to wash their hands often and avoid sharing drinking glasses, eating utensils or water bottles.

Q. How should I treat a summer cold virus? 
Don't ask your pediatrician for antibiotics, since they're not useful for viruses. Instead, treat a fever with a pain reliever, like Tylenol. Cough medicine and decongestants can provide relief from cold symptoms. Check the packaging for age restrictions. And if your child is suffering from stomach issues caused by the enterovirus -- and is 6 or older -- you can give her an antacid.

Of course, make sure your child gets plenty of rest. You should also ensure she's drinking regularly, since the hot weather ups the risk for dehydration. Cooling baths, light clothing and air-conditioning can also help your little one stay comfortable while she recovers.

If one kid in your family is sick, how do you protect the rest of the brood? Do you let him or her play with brothers and sisters? Tell us in the comments below.

Stay Healthy With a Sick Kid

When your child sneezes, you:
A.   Run to his aid
B.   Run to the pharmacy
C.   Run for cover

If you wanted to answer A or B, but the truth is closer to C, your instincts are rational: Children bring home as many as 12 colds a year, says Dr. Lauren Feder, author of Natural Baby and Childcare: Practical Medical Advice and Holistic Wisdom for Raising Healthy Children. And one of the fastest ways for them to pass it on to you is through a sneeze, which can send contagious secretions flying at more than 100 miles per hour.

Staying well when your child is sick can be tricky, especially because children can hold on to colds for 10 days."That's sometimes twice as long as an adult," says Dr. Kevin Polsley, a primary care physician at Loyola University Health System. To complicate matters, your child might not show symptoms of a cold until a day or two after contracting the virus."That means you can catch a cold from your child before you even know he has it," says Polsley.

So it's important to fend off colds all season long -- even when you don't think they're in your house. Here's how:

1. Teach cold etiquette.
Show your child how to "catch" a cough or sneeze in her elbow or tissue, and you'll be less likely to catch the germs that lead to a cold, says Feder. Also remind your child to keep her hands away from her face and to dispose of used tissues in the trash.

To further prevent the spread of colds in your home, tell your kids to avoid sharing cups and utensils. (And resist the temptation to take a sip from your child's drink too.)

2. Hum away.
The easiest way for the cold virus to enter your body is through your nose. Humming vibrates your nasal passages and sets the small hairs in your nose, called cilia, into motion."As long as your cilia move, they move any virus out of your nose," says Dr. Murray Grossan, an ear, nose and throat specialist and author of Free Yourself From Sinus and Allergy Problems Permanently.

In fact, one small study conducted by researchers in Texas found that chronic nasal inflammation lessened after one hour of humming at bedtime coupled with humming 60 to 120 times throughout the day. Although that amount may drive you and your family crazy, it can't hurt to try humming a little ditty more often -- especially when your child's wiped out with a bug.

3. Moisturize.
When the temperature falls, so does the humidity in the air, providing the perfect conditions for the cold virus to thrive, says Feder. As nasal passages become dry and even crack, they give easier access to viruses."Our skin is a barrier, and a breach in the skin opens the door to infection," she says.

Using a sinus rinse such as a saline solution three times a week should keep your nasal passages hydrated and help you fend off infection, recommends Feder. Also consider using a humidifier to add moisture to the air.

4. Cover your hands.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be helpful, but only if you use them the right way."If you put just a little on your palms, you could be missing the virus on the backs of your hands or in between your fingers," says Dr. John Maguire, owner of Simplicity Urgent Care in Arlington, Va. Squeeze a dime-sized dollop of sanitizer into the palms of your hands. Rub your hands thoroughly, cleaning the front and back of your hands, as well as between your fingers and beneath your fingernails.

Look for sanitizers that contain at least 60 percent alcohol, adds Dr. Joshua Riff, the chief medical director for Target. He suggests placing a bottle by your front door so everyone remembers to sanitize before they go into the house. And when your kid's sick, stash a bottle outside his or her room to keep germs from spreading around the house.

5. Don't forget the water.
Nothing beats a sink with soap for washing away the cold virus before it gets too cozy, says Polsley."If there's visible dirt on your digits, sanitizer won't do the trick." You'll need to lather up and keep your hands under running water for up to 20 seconds (hum the "Happy Birthday" song and you'll get your cilia moving too!).

Make hand-washing part of your family's daily routine: Scrub up when you come home and before every meal. And don't forget to decontaminate your hands every time you wipe your child's runny nose.

6. Treat toys.
If you've got little ones with the sniffles, take care when touching the toys they play with -- you know, the ones they sneeze on. Studies have shown that the cold virus can linger on surfaces for 48 hours or more.

Polsley recommends sterilizing those toys with disinfectant wipes, but first check that the brand you use kills viruses, or it's listed as virucidal against the rhinovirus. Also be sure to wipe down doorknobs, sink and toilet levers, cabinet handles, light switches and remote controls -- anything that is touched frequently by everyone in the house.

Photo by Kelly Sikkema on Unsplash

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Why Sniffles Hit Hardest at Night

When your child wakes up coughing or complaining of an earache, it's tough to know what to do. And many common ailments -- from asthma to croup -- worsen in the wee hours.

Lying down plays a role in most colds and sinus symptoms "because it causes secretions to drain into the throat and may obstruct drainage happening during the day," says Dr. Michael Steiner, pediatrician and chief of the Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "Plus, any pain, discomfort or fever will seem worse when children and parents are tired."

Children may also feel sicker at night because they're less distracted by activities, adds Dr. Mobeen H. Rathore, chief of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology at Wolfson Children's Hospital and the University of Florida, College of Medicine in Jacksonville.

Learn how to help your little one feel better when he's sick at night, no matter the ailment. Just remember, says Rathore: Call the pediatrician whenever you're unsure or concerned, day or night.

This common childhood pain is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection in the ear (sometimes due to a nasty cold or allergies). Fluid builds up behind the eardrum, and lying down adds pressure to spots that are already sore and inflamed.

Treatment: According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, approximately 80 percent of children with middle ear infections recover without antibiotics. Shocking, since about 50 percent of antibiotics for American preschoolers are prescribed for ear infections! If the pain isn't severe, help your child feel more comfortable with a pain reliever such as acetaminophen, says Rathore. (Don't use aspirin, which has been associated with a rare but potentially deadly condition called Reye's syndrome.) A warm compress may also help.

When to call the doc: If symptoms get worse or don't improve within 24 to 48 hours, you should consider calling your pediatrician. Chronic ear infections can cause hearing problems, so it's important to monitor symptoms. Red-flag symptoms include severe ear pain and discharge from the ear.

Symptoms from the common cold tend to flare up at night. "When you lie down, the airways are more likely to become clogged with mucus," says Dr. Neil Schachter, author of The Good Doctor's Guide to Colds and Flu and the Medical Director of the Respiratory Care Department at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.

Treatment: While there is no cure for the common cold, moms can employ a few simple, reliable tactics to help kids feel better. In addition to age-appropriate OTC remedies, a humidifier or steam from a hot shower may also ease congestion so your child can breathe easier. Rathore suggests using acetaminophen to relieve sore throat. Schachter also suggests gargling with salt water before bed "to remove virus-laden mucus from the throat, which relieves both sore throat and coughing."

When to call the doc: Routine colds don't require a doctor's care, but watch out for any other unusual symptoms, including a high fever, distressed breathing or a sore throat that's severe or lasts longer than a week.

Most common in children 5 or under, croup causes swelling in the trachea and larynx. It's usually caused by a virus and characterized by a loud, barking cough. "Croup symptoms seem to worsen at night, possibly because the upper airway naturally relaxes during sleep, so it narrows," says Steiner. "It's also possible that using a heater at night dries out the air and makes symptoms worse."

Treatment: Although mist treatment was long thought to manage croup, a 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that high humidity didn't seem to help moderate to severe cases. Still, for mild bouts, a warm, steamy bathroom may soothe symptoms. A dose of children's ibuprofen or acetaminophen can bring down swelling of the airways. More severe cases may require a prescription drug to open airways. 

When to call the doc: If your child makes noisy and high-pitched sounds when inhaling, struggles to breathe, develops blue or grayish skin or has a fever of 103.5 F or higher, it's time to see the doctor. Also get in touch if symptoms last longer than a week or are reoccurring.

Photo by Kelly Sikkema on Unsplash

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6 Reasons to Call the Pediatrician

Sick children at home? If they’ve got a cold, they'll usually recover on their own within seven to 10 days, but in some cases, those sniffles can develop into a more serious condition that requires medical attention. If you notice any of the following warning signs in your kids, you've got reason to call the pediatrician.

Warning Sign No. 1: A high fever 
A fever of 105 F or more can mean your child has another problem, like strep throat. If your baby is younger than 3 months old, you should also call your doctor if he or she has a fever of 100.4 F or more.

Warning Sign No. 2: Symptoms that persist after the fever subsides 
Most kids start to perk up after their fever goes down. But if your little one still seems tired and miserable after the number on the thermometer drops, it could mean she's dehydrated -- or even has a more serious infection such as meningitis, so get a hold of your doctor's office as soon as possible.

Warning Sign No. 3: Wheezing or vomiting while coughing 
Call your pediatrician if coughing causes your child to gasp for breath or throw up. She may want to screen for asthma or whooping cough.

Warning Sign No. 4: Symptoms that don't improve 
Kids sometimes catch two colds in a row, so they can be sick for longer than the normal weeklong span. But if it doesn't seem your child is improving and her runny nose remains consistent for more than 10 days, it's worth calling your doctor.

Warning Sign No. 5: Rash with fever 
Children can get rashes from viruses and allergic reactions. But if the rash doesn't blanch -- or fade -- when you press on it, call your pediatrician immediately. It may be a sign of a serious infection.

Warning Sign No. 6: Gut feeling that something's wrong 
I'm a firm believer in a mother's "sixth sense," or gut intuition. You know your child best, so if something doesn't seem right, call your doctor. It's better to address your concerns early on, so we can catch any illnesses as soon as possible.

Photo by Ashkan Forouzani on Unsplash

The Science Behind Your Favorite Remedies

When you were sick as a kid, what was your mom's go-to comfort trick? Turns out some of your favorite nostalgic remedies have research-proven benefits. Here, we'll discuss which ones really work -- and which ones miss the mark.

Mom's Remedy: Chicken Soup
Chicken noodle soup just might be the perfect recipe for cold relief: A recent University of Nebraska Medical Center study found that this time-held favorite is anti-inflammatory and can actually help ease illness. When researchers tested homemade and several pre-made chicken soups, they found that all varieties were effective in reducing symptoms, like cough and congestion. Here's the kicker: Broth alone wasn't effective, and it didn't matter whether there were veggies or not as long as the soup contained both chicken and noodles. Researchers suspect that the combo improves hydration, offers solid nutrition and has a strong placebo effect on coughs.

"I recommend drinking warm liquids and eating hot soup for all of my sick patients," says Dr. Clement Bottino, a fellow in academic pediatrics at Children's Hospital Boston. During a cold, blood vessels get leaky, causing dehydration, he explains. The water provides fluid, the salt prevents liquids from escaping and the warmth relaxes the vessels to improve circulation."This is the same idea as when we give IV fluids to patients in the hospital," he says."The saline solution is made of warm water and salt, just like chicken soup."

Mom's Remedy: Orange Juice
Moms are always pushing OJ, and for good reason: Oranges are high in vitamin C, an antioxidant your body uses to help repair its tissues. A 2007 analysis of results from 30 clinical trials found that vitamin C didn't prevent colds, but it slightly reduced the severity and length of symptoms.

Even so, experts agree that the jury's still out on whether the vitamin is effective in preventing or ending colds. In fact, doctors don't recommend doling out vitamin C supplements to kids, even when they're sick."The thing with vitamin C is that your body excretes what it doesn't need," explains Dr. Wendy Sue Swanson, a pediatrician at Seattle Children's Hospital and author of the Seattle Mama Doc blog."So there's no evidence that a supplement will provide any additional benefits."

For a revved-up immune system, Swanson advises opting for foods that are high in the vitamin and in other nutrients, such as oranges, strawberries and tomatoes."The fiber in whole fruits also slows the absorption of sugar," adds Bottino."And that's better for your health in general."

Mom's Remedy: Ginger Ale
Research shows that ginger root is effective for treating morning sickness and nausea post-surgery. But studies on ginger ale for flu symptoms are inconclusive, and the spicy root shouldn't be given to children younger than 2 years of age."Most ginger ales don't contain that much natural ginger," says Swanson."And you get 200 calories from the sugar."

Instead of serving up this particular fizzy drink, provide plenty of clear liquids, like electrolyte drinks that contain the right balance of sugar and salt, to help kids recover.

Mom's Remedy: A Steamy Bath
Numerous studies have shown that this nighttime ritual is an effective cold treatment; steam moistens nasal passages and eases congestion."It's the same theory as when our grandparents used to boil water, put a cloth over the pot and have us stand over it," says Dr. Heather Lubell, a pediatrician at St. Christopher's Hospital for Children in Philadelphia."It doesn't make the cold go away, but it does lessen symptoms in the short term."

What's more, a Cornell University study found that a drop in core body temperature is a signal that helps you fall asleep faster and reach deep sleep more easily. Because a bath mimics this drop in temperature, a pre-bedtime soak tells your child's body it's time to doze off. Lubell recommends also placing a humidifier in your child's room to safely relieve stuffiness and improve breathing -- especially in the wee hours, when coughs are more likely to pop up.

Mom's Remedy: Tea With Lemon and Honey
The same theory for chicken soup holds true for a cup of hot tea: Heat increases blood flow, which may speed healing, says Bottino. More importantly, since mucus production can make you dehydrated, drinking lots of fluids -- especially clear ones like tea -- is key.

Besides sweetening the drink, honey may help curb your child's hacking. According to a study in the journal Pediatrics; Adolescent Medicine, 2 teaspoons of the sticky stuff before bed helped reduce coughs. Although you should never give honey to kids younger than 2 years of age, it may be a tool in addition to OTC meds to calm a cough.

Tea's also high in immune-boosting antioxidants, and a 2009 study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that blood cells in tea drinkers responded five times faster to bacteria and virus infections than their coffee-sipping counterparts. Is your child not a fan of English breakfast tea or Earl Grey? Brew a mug of hot water with lemon and honey instead.

Mom's Remedy: Bed Rest
It's no wonder that you feel wiped out when you're sick. That's your body's way of telling you that you need to log more z's for your immune system. According to a 2009 study in the Archives of Internal Medicine, people who logged less than seven hours of sleep a night were nearly three times as likely to catch a cold than those who got eight or more hours.

“Sleep is the most important thing you can do to fight off an infection," says Bottino. During shut-eye, he says, your body literally renews itself. To help your child snooze soundly, get symptoms like coughing under control first; a humidifier and over-the-counter medications can help him or her nod off quickly. Also place a box of soft facial tissues on your child's bedside table -- that way, relief will be within reach whenever he needs it and he won't have to disrupt his sleep too much during the night.

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